Seminoma Metastatic to the Orbit

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Abstract

Purpose:

Seminomas are solid tumors in young men, but which rarely metastasize to the orbit. The authors review the known literature on seminoma metastatic to the orbit, and describe an additional case in a 33-year-old man.

Methods:

A literature search was performed on the MEDLINE database using keywords “seminoma,” “testicular germ-cell tumors,” “testicular cancer,” “testicular neoplasm,” “orbital metastasis,” and “germ-cell neoplasms.”

Results:

Malignant neoplasms of the testis account for only 1% of cancers in men. None-the-less, testicular germ cell seminoma is the most common solid tumor found in young men between the ages of 15 and 39. Only seven previous cases have been mentioned in the literature. The pathogenesis remains unclear although genetic, environmental, and maternal factors may play a role. The number of cases is too few to determine the best treatment options, but surgical excision and adjunctive orbital radiotherapy appear to be most appropriate.

Conclusions:

Although metastases to the orbit are rare, seminoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all young men with proptosis.

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