New antibiotics for ventilator-associated pneumonia

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria represents a global emerging problem. Delayed prescription of an adequate treatment for VAP has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. New molecules have been developed to face the need of compounds that are active against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the current scenario of new therapeutic options for the treatment of VAP.

Recent findings

A number of new antibiotics with activity against MDR have been recently approved for the treatment of VAP, and other agents are under investigation. In this review, the authors summarize the current therapeutic options for the treatment of VAP that showed promising implications for clinical practice, including new compounds belonging to old antibiotic classes (e.g., ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam meropenem/vaborbactam, imipenem/relebactam, tedizolid, cefiderocol, eravacycline, and plazomicin) and novel chemical classes, such as murepavadin. Nebulized antibiotics that are currently in development for the treatment of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients are also presented.

Summary

Newly approved and investigational drugs for the treatment of VAP are expected to offer many advantages for the management of patients with respiratory infections caused by MDR. Promising characteristics of new compounds include high activity against both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and MDR Gram-negative bacteria and a favorable safety profile.

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