Successful treatment of rituximab- and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome with leukocytapheresis
Although rituximab (RTX) is a promising therapeutic agent for treating steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) resistant to various immunosuppressive agents, some patients have shown resistance to RTX. We report the case of a patient with RTX-resistant nephrotic syndrome and SRNS who was successfully treated with leukocytapheresis (LCAP). After LCAP, there was a significant reduction in proteinuria and in the total number of lymphocytes, T cells, and HLA-DR+-activated T cells. Moreover, the patient became sensitive to steroids and RTX. LCAP reduced circulating immune cells including activated T cells and could be effective in treating rituximab-resistant nephrotic syndrome and SRNS and in achieving remission of proteinuria.