Pediatrics and donor-derived disease transmission: The US OPTN experience
PDDTE are tracked by the OPTN Ad Hoc DTAC. Specific evaluation of potential transmissions from pediatric deceased donors or the impact of donor-derived disease transmissions to pediatric organ recipients has not been previously undertaken. PDDTE reported to the DTAC between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed, characterized as proven, probable, possible, IWDT, unlikely, or excluded for both the whole event and each individual recipient. Pediatric donors and recipients were defined as being 0-17 years of age. Analysis was undertaken to characterize potential disease transmission from pediatric donors to adult or pediatric recipients and also to evaluate potential transmission from all donors to pediatric recipients. P/P cases were further analyzed. A total of 5238 pediatric deceased US donors accounted for 17 456 organ transplants during the study period; 103 PDDTE reports arose from these donors (2.0%). PDDTE were characterized as P/P (15%), possible (13%), IWDT (9%), unlikely, and excluded (63%). Disease was transmitted to 22 of 54 potentially exposed (adult and pediatric) recipients with six attributable deaths. An infectious pathogen accounted for 13/15 of the P/P PDDTE associated with pediatric donors, affecting 19 of 50 potentially exposed recipients and resulting in five deaths. Four separate viral pathogens from six donors accounted for P/P transmissions to 11 recipients with the unanticipated transmission of CMV most common. No pediatric donor transmitted HIV, HBV, or HCV. Bacteria, fungi, and parasites accounted for three (all staphylococci), three (Zygomycetes and Histoplasma), and two (both Toxoplasma) P/P transmissions from seven donors, respectively. From the recipient side, 11/11,188 pediatric recipient deceased and living donor transplants during the study period were associated with a P/P PDDTE (<0.1%) with infectious pathogens accounting for 9/11 P/P events. Infections were split among pathogen categories (bacteria 2, viruses 3, parasites 3, and fungi 1). Reporting rates of PDDTE involving pediatric donors were very low and similar to rates from all donors, with resulting P/P transmissions occurring in only 0.1% of exposed recipients, but transmissions were associated with six deaths. Rates of P/P transmission to pediatric recipients from any donor (<0.1%) were also very low and similar to that of all recipients. Additional studies are needed to compare the pattern and outcome of donor-derived disease transmission from and to pediatric and adult donor and recipients.