Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Bronchoscopist-directed Moderate Sedation With a Bolus Dose Administration of Propofol During Endobronchial Ultrasound Bronchoscopy
The propofol use for moderate sedation (MS) during endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) bronchoscopy is primarily restricted for use by an anesthesiologist because of safety concerns. The goals of this study were to demonstrate the safety and the diagnostic yield of the use of propofol by bronchoscopists and trained endoscopy nurses during EBUS bronchoscopy without intubation.Methods:
We tested a bolus propofol administration protocol targeting MS for EBUS bronchoscopy. A fixed initial dose of 40 mg of propofol along with a fixed 50 mcg fentanyl dose were administered. Sedation assessment was performed every 2 minutes, and repeated bolus doses of propofol were given to maintain MS under the direction of the bronchoscopist.Results:
A total of 122 subjects underwent EBUS bronchoscopy with a goal of MS from August 2015 to April 2017. In total, 110 subjects who underwent convex EBUS bronchoscopy under MS with propofol were included in the analysis. Median procedure duration was 57 minutes (range, 15 to 97 min). Deep sedation and agitation-related delay were occurred in 14 and 21 subjects, respectively. Hemodynamic instability and hypoxemia occurred in 23 subjects. However, there was no need for vasopressors or artificial airway placement. Median of total propofol dose per case was 560 mg. Diagnostic yield for malignancy and granuloma was 68%, and a median of 4 lymph node stations were sampled per subject. All specimens with adenocarcinoma were sufficient for genetic marker analysis. There were no major sedation-related complications.Conclusion:
A bolus administration of propofol during EBUS bronchoscopy provided excellent adequacy of sedation and well tolerance safety profile.