Beneficial effects of oleuropein on glucose uptake and on parameters relevant to the normal homeostatic mechanisms of glucose regulation in rat skeletal muscle
Oleuropein, the main constituents of leaves and fruits of the olive tree, has been demonstrated to exert various therapeutic and pharmacological properties including antidiabetic effect. However, the effectiveness of oleuropein on glucose homeostasis in intact rat skeletal muscle ex vivo has never been explored. Therefore, our current study was carried out to investigate and confirm the beneficial effect of oleuropein (1.5 mM) on glucose uptake and on parameters relevant to the normal homeostatic mechanisms of glucose regulation in rat skeletal muscle. For this purpose, soleus muscles were incubated for 12 hr without (control) or with oleuropein, in the presence or absence of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, compound C, or wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol kinase. Oleuropein-stimulated glucose transport, plasmalemmal glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol kinase and AMPK were examined. We observed that oleuropein treatment enhanced glucose transport, GLUT4 translocation, and AMPK phosphorylation. The oleuropein-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were inhibited by compound C and were not affected by wortmannin. These results suggest that increased glucose uptake induced by oleuropein might be mediated through activation of AMPK and the subsequent increase in GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscles.