Vaginal microbiota composition and association with prevalent Chlamydia trachomatis infection: a cross-sectional study of young women attending a STI clinic in France.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES

New molecular techniques have allowed describing groups of bacterial communities in the vagina (community state types (CST)) that could play an important role in Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. Our aim was to describe the distribution of CST in a population of young women in France.

METHODS

A cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2015 among anonymous young women attending a STI clinic in Bordeaux, France. Participants provided a vaginal sample for CT screening and sociodemographic data. CT was diagnosed using the Aptima-combo 2 transcription-mediated-amplification assay. Vaginal microbiota composition was characterised using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.

RESULTS

Microbiota composition and CT status were available for 132 women. CST dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus (CST-I), L. iners (CST-III) and a diversity of anaerobes (CST-IV) represented 37.1%, 38.6% and 22.0% of the sample, respectively. Twenty-one out of 132 women were CT positive. Proportions of CT-positive women were higher for samples belonging to CST-III (21.6%) and CST-IV (17.2%) than to CST-I (8.2%).

CONCLUSIONS

Five CST were found in 132 young women from a STI clinic in France. These CSTs were not significantly associated with CT but higher proportions of CT-positive women were found in CST-III and CST-IV, consistent with a previous study in the Netherlands. Though our study lacked statistical power and was cross-sectional, it is a necessary first step to understand the structure of the vaginal microbiota in French women with or without infection before performing in-depth longitudinal studies.

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