Application of the ICRP 67 and NCRP 156 Biokinetic Models to 241 Am Wound Data from Nonhuman Primates
Distribution, retention, and excretion of intramuscularly injected 241Am citrate have been investigated in cynomolgus and rhesus nonhuman primates (NHP). Bioassay and retention data, obtained from experiments done by Patricia Durbin and her colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, were evaluated against the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 67) 241Am systemic model coupled with to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement wound model (NCRP 156). The default transfer rates suggested in these models were used with the urine and feces excretion data to predict the intake as well as liver and skeleton tissue contents at the time of death. The default models adequately predict the animals’ urine bioassay data, but the injected activities were overpredicted by as much 4.41 times and underpredicted by as much as 0.99 times. Poor prediction has been observed in all cases using fecal excretion. The retained activity in the liver and skeleton were investigated using the same approach. It appears that the models predict the amount of the activity retention in the skeleton more accurately than in the liver. The fraction of predicted to measured activity at the time of death in the skeleton was over 1.0 in most cases, and accurate predictions were obtained in seven cases. The predicted activity in skeleton for these cases ranged from 2.7 to 17% overestimated activity and from 9 to 14% underestimated activity. NHPs’ urine data and organ retention were compared with data from previously modeled baboons and beagle dogs. About 6% of the injected activity in baboons and beagle dog was excreted in urine and approximately 0.1% in feces in the first 24 h. The results from NHP are not different from excreta analysis in these other species. Urinary excretion in the cynomolgus, rhesus, and baboon NHP is the dominant pathway of 241Am clearance; however, fecal excretion is considered dominant in beagle dogs. The comparison between NHPs and humans is difficult due to the differences in the number of activities translocated or deposited in the liver tissue and nonliver tissues (primarily skeleton), in addition to the physiological differences between the NHPs and humans.