Hydration prevents chronic hyperglycaemic patients from neurological deterioration post-ischaemic stroke

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Abstract

Objectives

To determine whether chronic hyperglycaemia predisposes patients to dehydration, which may promote neurological deterioration, and to investigate whether dehydration control improves functional outcome.

Patients and Methods

This study included 355 patients hospitalized with acute ischaemic stroke and diabetes mellitus who fulfilled the glycaemic gap ≤0. We used the following cut-offs: (i) no chronic hyperglycaemia (glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] < 7%) and (ii) chronic hyperglycaemia (HbA1c ≥ 7%). The chronic hyperglycaemic patients were randomly divided into the control group and the hydration group. Hydration therapy was only initiated in the hydration group. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine (Cr) ratio was used as an indicator of dehydration. Stroke severity on admission and discharge was assessed by means of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS).

Results

The mean baseline BUN/Cr ratios were higher in the control group and hydration group than in the no chronic hyperglycaemia group. The mean BUN/Cr ratio decreased from 91.22 ± 29.95 on the first day to 77.03 ± 18.23 on the third day (P < .001) in the hydration group. On the third day after admission, there was no significant difference in the BUN/Cr ratio between the hydration group and the no chronic hyperglycaemia group (P = .831). Moreover, neurological deterioration was highest in the control group (33.6%, 36/107), followed by the hydration group (10.5%, 11/105) and the no chronic hyperglycaemia group (5.6%, 8/143).

Conclusions

Chronic hyperglycaemia was associated with the admission NIHSS score and neurological deterioration after excluding the effect of stress hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, hydration therapy may help prevent neurological deterioration.

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