Electroclinical findings and long-term outcomes in epileptic patients with inv dup (15)
To define the electroclinical phenotype and long-term outcomes in a cohort of patients with inv dup (15) syndrome.Material and Methods
The electroclinical data of 45 patients (25 males) affected by inv dup (15) and seizures were retrospectively analysed, and long-term follow-up of epilepsy was evaluated.Results
Epilepsy onset was marked by generalized seizures in 53% of patients, epileptic spasms in 51%, focal seizures in 26%, atypical absences in 11% and epileptic falls in 9%. The epileptic syndromes defined were: generalized epilepsy (26.7%), focal epilepsy (22.3%), epileptic encephalopathy with epileptic spasms as the only seizure type (17.7%) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (33.3%). Drug-resistant epilepsy was detected in 55.5% of patients. There was a significant higher prevalence of seizure-free patients in those with seizure onset after the age of 5 years and with focal epilepsy, with respect to those with earlier epilepsy onset because most of these later developed an epileptic encephalopathy (69.2% vs 34.4%; P = .03), usually Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome in type. In fact, among patients with early-onset epilepsy, those presenting with epileptic spasms as the only seizure type associated with classical hypsarrhythmia achieved seizure freedom (P < .001) compared to patients with spasms and other seizure types associated with modified hypsarrhythmia.Conclusions
Epilepsy in inv dup (15) leads to a more severe burden of disease. Frequently, these patients show drug resistance, in particular when epilepsy onset is before the age of five and features epileptic encephalopathy.