Different surgical approaches in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and their influence on metabolic syndrome: A retrospective study

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Obesity is a growing health, social, and economic issue and became an epidemic, according to recent report of World Health Organization.

The only method with scientifically proved efficiency of body mass loss is a surgical treatment. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is recently a leading method in metabolic surgery. There are no standards of operative technique for LSG so far. The influence of technique modification on metabolic effect has not been described clearly.

The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic effects in patients with morbid obesity who underwent various surgical approaches of LSG.

The study included 120 patients who were randomly divided into 3 groups: Group I, where bougie size was 32 French (Fr), Group II—36 Fr and Group III—40 Fr. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups, based on the distance of resection beginning from the pylorus—2 or 6 cm. Statistical analysis of: body mass index (BMI), the Percentage of Excess Weight Loss (%EWL), the Percentage of Excess BMI Loss (%EBMIL), levels of glucose and insulin on an empty stomach, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance Index—HOMA-IR), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were under investigation.

Statistically significant decrease in body mass, BMI, %EWL, %EBL, glucose, and insulin concentrations has been observed in all studied groups. It was the highest when the smallest calibration tube has been used (32 Fr). Similar results were observed in HOMA-IR and HbA1c levels. Statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol, LDL, and TG concentrations have been observed. Significant increase of HDL in every group has been also noted. Postoperative CRP values were the lowest when the smallest bougie was used.

LSG is effective method of obesity treatment. Metabolic effects of LSG are the most noticeable when a small bougie size is used.

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