Rising Events and Improved Outcomes of Gastrointestinal Bleed With Shock in USA: A 12-year National Analysis

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Abstract

Objective:

Limited information is available based on single-center studies on trends of incidence and outcomes in gastrointestinal (GI) bleed with shock.

Methods:

We analyzed data from 2002 to 2013 National Inpatient Sample. Using ICD-9 codes we identified 6.4 million hospital discharges of GI bleed from National Inpatient Sample database. Events were analyzed based on type of GI bleed, in-hospital mortality, hemodynamic status, and use of blood products.

Results:

GI bleed with shock results in higher hospital mortality (20.77% with shock vs. 2.6% without shock). Between 2002 and 2013, there has been an increase in the percentage of upper and lower GI bleed with shock (1.35% to 4.92% and 1.49% to 3.06%) along with a reduction in mortality in both upper GI bleed with shock (26.9% to 13.8%) and lower GI bleed with shock (54.7% to 19.7%). Consistent with the rise in GI bleed with shock was an increase in blood product utilization. Packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusion was associated with reduction in mortality in both nonvariceal upper GI bleed with shock (18.3% without pRBC vs. 13.9% receiving pRBC) and lower GI bleed with shock (36.05% without pRBC vs. 22.13% receiving pRBC), but did not affect mortality in variceal upper GI bleed with shock (31.79% vs. 32.22%).

Conclusions:

GI bleed with shock carries a higher mortality and have been steadily increasing from 2002 to 2013. pRBC transfusion was associated in improved mortality in GI bleed with shock except variceal bleed.

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