A Review of Published Guidance for Video Recording in Medical Education
Introduction: Medical educators have used resident–patient video recording to verify trainee competence in interpersonal and technical skills for 50 years. Although numerous authors acknowledge that video recording can compromise patient privacy and confidentiality, no summary of potential risks is available. Method: A scoping review of the literature on resident–patient video recording in medical education from the 1960s to the present was conducted. The review examined publications that addressed ethical, policy, procedural, or legal issues affecting patients’ rights when video recording. Results: Potential risks to the rights of video recorded patients were organized into 6 categories: informed consent policies, informed consent procedures, recorded medical errors, secondary use of recordings, collateral patient information, and public trust issues. The review revealed contradictory opinions on informed consent policies, inadequate guidance for responding when medical errors are recorded, and conflicting opinions about when recordings become part of the medical record. Many reviewed publications are opinion-based, precede current confidentiality guidelines, or rely on survey results. Discussion: This review organizes potential threats to patients’ rights for those medical educators who use video recording technology. The review reveals a need for broader consensus about video recording guidelines and for research on video recording practices, especially given technological advances in video equipment and the expansion of video technology in health care settings.