Trauma Proliferation and Stress Generation (TPSG) Dynamics and Their Implications for Clinical Science
The current research and clinical focus on single traumas fails to assess numerous important trauma dynamics including trauma proliferation. In this study, 2 trauma proliferation pathways were identified that utilize a developmentally based trauma framework (DBTF). Data previously collected from 6 different cultural groups (N = 2279; 2 mental health clinics in Egypt and the United States, Native Americans, Palestinian adults in Gaza, and college students in Poland and Egypt) were reanalyzed. The 6 studies utilized DBTF-based measures of cumulative trauma and trauma types. Path analysis was used to test the trauma proliferation model and PROCESS software was used to identify mediators and their effect sizes. Results of the analyses indicated that attachment trauma and collective identity trauma independently predicted (directly and through mediators) personal identity trauma, role identity trauma, secondary trauma, and survival trauma. The pattern of proliferation was configurally invariant across the 6 groups and strictly invariant across genders. Implications for the consideration of trauma global dynamics, such as trauma proliferation, are discussed.