Incidence and Long-term Implications of Prepouch Ileitis: An Observational Study

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Restorative proctocolectomy is the procedure of choice in patients with ulcerative colitis refractory to medical therapy. Prepouch ileitis is characterized by mucosal inflammation immediately proximal to the pouch. Prepouch ileitis is uncommon, and long-term follow-up data are lacking.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study is to report the long-term outcomes of prepouch ileitis.

DESIGN:

We followed up a cohort of patients with prepouch ileitis that was originally described in 2009. Patients were followed up until the last recorded clinic attendance or at the point of pouch failure. Follow-up data collected included stool frequency, endoscopic findings, treatment, and overall pouch function.

SETTING:

We accessed a prospectively maintained database at our institution between January 2009 and January 2017.

PATIENTS:

Three of the 34 patients originally described in 2009 were lost to follow-up; we reanalyzed data on the remaining 31.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:

The rate of pouch failure was defined as the need for ileostomy or pouch revision.

RESULTS:

All 31 patients had coexisting pouchitis at index diagnosis of prepouch ileitis. The median length of follow-up from the index pouchoscopy was 98 (range, 27–143) months. Seven (23%) patients who had an index pouchoscopy with prepouch ileitis went on to pouch failure, which is significantly higher than expected (p = 0.03). Five (71%) of these patients had chronic pouchitis, and 2 (29%) had small-bowel obstruction due to prepouch stricture. Two patients had evidence that would support possible Crohn’s disease at long-term follow-up.

LIMITATIONS:

This was a retrospective analysis. Because of the nature of the study, there was some missing information that may have influenced the results. Our study is further limited by small patient numbers.

CONCLUSIONS:

Prepouch ileitis is associated with a significantly increased risk of pouch failure compared with the overall reported literature for restorative proctocolectomy. Prepouch ileitis does not appear to be strongly predictive of Crohn’s disease at long-term follow-up. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A480.

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