The purpose of this study was to review the literature reporting rates of postoperative endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy and investigate whether modern microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) increases the postoperative endophthalmitis rate, compared with traditional 20-gauge (20 G) vitrectomy.Methods:
A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify studies describing the incidence of post–pars plana vitrectomy endophthalmitis. A meta-analysis of comparative studies reporting the endophthalmitis rates after MIVS versus 20 G vitrectomy was also conducted.Results:
A total of 31 studies reported 199 endophthalmitis cases in 363,544 participants (0.05%). The incidence of endophthalmitis after 20 G vitrectomy was 0.04% (88/229,435), compared with 0.03% (8/27,326) after 23 G and 0.11% (33/29,676) after 25 G. The meta-analysis demonstrated that the incidence of endophthalmitis was higher after MIVS (23 G/25 G) compared with 20 G vitrectomy (odds ratio = 3.39, 95% confidence interval, 1.39–8.23). In a subgroup analysis, we also found an increased risk of endophthalmitis after 25 G compared with 20 G vitrectomy (odds ratio = 4.09, 95% confidence interval, 2.33–7.18), but not for 23 G versus 20 G (odds ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval, 0.47–2.78).Conclusion:
The incidence of post–pars plana vitrectomy endophthalmitis was low, with no significant differences between 23 G MIVS and 20 G vitrectomy, but 25 G MIVS may result in a higher postoperative endophthalmitis rate.