Adenosine 2A Receptor Activation Attenuates Ischemia Reperfusion Injury During Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

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Abstract

Objective:

We tested the hypothesis that systemic administration of an A2AR agonist will reduce multiorgan IRI in a porcine model of ECPR.

Summary Background Data:

Advances in ECPR have decreased mortality after cardiac arrest; however, subsequent IRI contributes to late multisystem organ failure. Attenuation of IRI has been reported with the use of an A2AR agonist.

Methods:

Adult swine underwent 20 minutes of circulatory arrest, induced by ventricular fibrillation, followed by 6 hours of reperfusion with ECPR. Animals were randomized to vehicle control, low-dose A2AR agonist, or high-dose A2AR agonist. A perfusion specialist using a goal-directed resuscitation protocol managed all the animals during the reperfusion period. Hourly blood, urine, and tissue samples were collected. Biochemical and microarray analyses were performed to identify differential inflammatory markers and gene expression between groups.

Results:

Both the treatment groups demonstrated significantly higher percent reduction from peak lactate after reperfusion compared with vehicle controls. Control animals required significantly more fluid, epinephrine, and higher final pump flow while having lower urine output than both the treatment groups. The treatment groups had lower urine NGAL, an early marker of kidney injury (P = 0.01), lower plasma aspartate aminotransferase, and reduced rate of troponin rise (P = 0.01). Pro-inflammatory cytokines were lower while anti-inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in the treatment groups.

Conclusions:

Using a novel and clinically relevant porcine model of circulatory arrest and ECPR, we demonstrated that a selective A2AR agonist significantly attenuated systemic IRI and warrants clinical investigation.

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