The current standard of care for an amputee is a socket-based prostheses. An osseointegrated implant (OI) is an alternative for prosthetic attachment. Osseointegration addresses reported problems related to wearing a socket interface, such as skin issues, discomfort, diminished function, quality of life, prosthetic use, and abandonment. The purpose of this report is to systematically review current literature regarding OI to identify and categorize the reported clinically relevant outcome measures, rate the quality of available evidence, and synthesize the findings.Data sources:
A multidisciplinary team used PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methods. Search methodology was based on identifying clinically relevant articles. Three databases were searched: PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science.Study Selection:
Clinical studies with aggregated data reporting at least 1 clinically relevant outcome measure were included.Data Extraction:
The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criterion was used for critical appraisal and recommendations.Conclusions:
This review identified 21 clinically relevant observational studies. Outcome measures were categorized into the following 9 categories: vibratory stimulation, complications, biomechanics, economics, patient-reported outcome measures, electromyography, x-ray, physical functional performance, and energy consumption. This systematic review consisted of Level III and IV observational studies. Homogeneous outcome measures with strong psychometric properties across prospective studies do not exist to date. Higher-level, prospective, randomized, long-term, clinically relevant trials are needed to prove efficacy of OI compared with socket prosthetic attachment. Osseointegration was at least equivalent to sockets in most studies. In some cases, it was superior. Osseointegration represents a promising alternative to socket prosthetic attachments for extremity amputees.Level of Evidence:
Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.