Leońska-Duniec, A, Jastrzębski, Z, Jażdżewska, A, Krzysztof, F, and Cięszczyk, P. Leptin and leptin receptor genes are associated with obesity-related traits changes in response to aerobic training program. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1036–1044, 2018—Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes have been studied for their potential association with development of human obesity and its related complications. Therefore, we have decided to check whether selected body mass, body composition, and metabolic variables observed in physically active participants will be modulated by the polymorphisms. The genotype distribution was examined in a group of 201 women measured for chosen traits before and after the completion of a 12-week aerobic training program. Our results revealed a significant interaction between training and LEP genotype for glucose level. A training-related decrease in plasma glucose concentration in the LEP AG heterozygotes differed significantly from the change in the homozygotes. The polymorphism was also associated with fat-free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Another finding was a significant interaction between training and LEPR for LDL-C level. As opposed to AG and GG, AA homozygotes demonstrated a training-related decrease in LDL-C level. Our findings also showed that the LEPR G allele is connected with obesity-related traits. The participants with the GG genotype had higher body mass, body mass index (BMI), FFM, and TBW during the entire study period. This study provides evidence that polymorphisms in the LEP and LEPR genes are associated with the magnitude of the effects of regular physical activity on glucose and LDL-C levels, respectively. In addition, we found the association of the G allele of the LEPR polymorphism with body mass and BMI.