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Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has mitogenic, motogenic, morphogenic, and anti-apoptotic activities on renal cells and is a potential renotropin for renal protection and repair. In chronic renal failure/fibrosis, HGF in the kidney declines in a reciprocal manner to the increase in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Neutralization of HGF by the antibody leads to acceleration of renal failure/fibrosis while HGF administration leads to remarkable attenuation, thus indicating the importance of HGF versus TGF-β counterbalance in both pathogenesis and therapeutics in cases of chronic renal failure. HGF is being strongly considered for potential treatment of acute and chronic renal failure.