*Human Interface Technology Laboratory and Department of Psychology, University of Washington, and Departments of †Rehabilitation Medicine and ‡Anesthesiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.
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ObjectiveThe current study explored whether immersive virtual reality continues to reduce pain (via distraction) with repeated use.SettingThe study was conducted in a burn care unit at a regional trauma center.PatientsSeven patients aged 9–32 years (mean age of 21.9 years; average of 23.7% total body surface area burned [range, 3–60%]) performed range-of-motion exercises of their injured extremity under an occupational therapist's direction on at least 3 separate days each.InterventionFor each physical therapy session, each patient spent equal amounts of time in virtual reality and in the control condition (no distraction). The mean duration of physical therapy in virtual reality was 3.5, 4.9, and 6.4 minutes for the first, second, and third session, respectively. Condition order was randomized and counterbalanced.Outcome MeasuresFor each of the three physical therapy sessions, five visual analog pain scores for each treatment condition served as the dependent variables.ResultsPain ratings were statistically lower when patients were in virtual reality, and the magnitude of pain reduction did not diminish with repeated use of virtual reality. The results of this study may be examined in more detail at http://www.vrpain.com.ConclusionsAlthough the small sample size limits generalizability, results provide converging preliminary evidence that virtual reality can function as a strong nonpharmacological pain reduction technique for burn patients during physical therapy. Results suggest that virtual reality does not diminish in analgesic effectiveness with three (and possibly more) uses. Virtual reality may also have analgesic potential for other painful procedures or pain populations. Practical implications are discussed.