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Learned enhancement of EEG frequency components in the lower beta range by means of biofeedback has been reported to alleviate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. In order to elucidate frequency-specific behavioural effects and neurophysiological mediators, this study applied neurofeedback protocols to healthy volunteers, and assessed impact on behavioural and electrocortical attention measures. Operant enhancement of a 12–15 Hz component was associated with reduction in commission errors and improved perceptual sensitivity on a continuous performance task (CPT), while the opposite relation was found for 15–18 Hz enhancement. Both 12–15 Hz and 15–18 Hz enhancement were associated with significant increases in P300 event-related brain potential amplitudes in an auditory oddball task. These relations are interpreted as stemming from band-specific effects on perceptual and motor aspects of attention measures.