MUSCLE INJURIES AND REPAIR: CURRENT TRENDS IN RESEARCH


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Abstract

After injury, muscle healing occurs through different phases, including (1) degeneration and inflammation, (2) muscle regeneration, and (3) development of fibrosis.The severity and type of muscle injury influence the healing process.Enhancement of muscle regeneration and prevention of muscle fibrosis can improve muscle healing.Growth factors, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and nerve growth factor (NGF), can improve muscle regeneration, but the post-injury healing process remains incomplete.The use of anti-fibrosis agents that antagonize the effect of transforming growth factor-#38;β1 (TGF-#38;β1) can prevent fibrosis and improve muscle healing, resulting in nearly complete recovery.Optimal muscle recovery may require the use of novel technologies, such as gene therapy and tissue engineering, to achieve both high levels and long-term persistence of these growth factors and cytokines within the injured muscle.

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