P504S/alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a useful marker for diagnosis of small foci of prostatic carcinoma on needle biopsy.

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Establishing a definitive diagnosis of malignancy in prostate needle biopsies with very small foci of adenocarcinoma is a major diagnostic challenge for surgical pathologists. A positive diagnostic marker specific for prostatic adenocarcinoma may enhance our ability to detect limited prostate cancer and reduce errors in diagnosis. P504S, also known as alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, recently identified by cDNA subtraction and microarray technology, might serve as such a specific marker because it has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma, but not in benign prostatic glands. However, whether small foci of carcinoma can be reliably detected by this marker is a crucial question for its clinical application. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of P504S immunohistochemistry in detecting small amounts of prostate cancer in prostate needle biopsies. A total of 142 prostate needle biopsies, including 73 cases with a small focus of prostatic adenocarcinoma (

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