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It is currently unknown whether there is an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with HIV infection. In addition, the contribution of antiret-roviral therapy (ART) to CHD risk has not been quantified. We reviewed administrative claims data for HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals from the California Medicaid population and compared the incidence of and relative risk (RR) for CHD using log-linear regression analyses between groups. The association between exposure to ART and CHD incidence was also assessed. Of 3,083,209 individuals analyzed, 28,513 were HIV-infected. The incidence of CHD among young men (up to age 34) and women (up to age 44) with HIV infection was significantly higher than that among non-HIV-infected individuals. The covariate-adjusted RR for the development of CHD in individuals receiving ART compared with those not receiving ART was 2.06 (P < 0.001) in HIV-infected individuals aged 18-33 years. There were no statistically significant associations between ART exposure and CHD in other age groups. CHD incidence appears accelerated among young HIV-infected individuals. Strategies to reduce CHD risk should be incorporated into HIV primary care.