This study's purpose was to determine whether complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is associated with alterations in the meibomian gland and ocular surface.Methods.
Individuals with CAIS, as well as age-matched female and male controls, completed questionnaires which assessed dry eye symptoms and underwent slit lamp evaluations of the tear film, tear meniscus, lids and lid margins and conjunctiva. The quality of meibomian gland secretions was also analyzed.Results.
Our results demonstrate that CAIS is associated with meibomian gland alterations and a significant increase in dry eye signs and symptoms. Clinical assessment revealed that CAIS women, as compared to controls, had a significant increase in telangiectasia, keratinization, lid erythema and orifice metaplasia of the meibomian glands, and a significant decrease in the tear meniscus and quality of meibomian gland secretions. Questionnaire results showed that dry eye symptoms were increased over twofold in CAIS individuals, as compared to controls, including a significant increase in the sensations of dryness, pain and light sensitivity.Conclusion.
Our results suggest that androgen insensitivity may promote meibomian gland dysfunction and an increase in the signs and symptoms of dry eye.