Gastrointestinal and Other Clinical Manifestations in 17 Children With Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation Type Ia, Ib, and Ic


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Abstract

ObjectivesThe typical signs and symptoms of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) include dysmorphy, failure to thrive, and neurologic abnormalities. However, more and more children diagnosed at a young age are not dysmorphic and do not have neurologic involvement. The authors studied the gastrointestinal and other clinical manifestations of CDG type Ia, Ib, and Ic.MethodsAs of January 2003, 17 children were identified with CDG at the authors' institution. The medical records of the patients were reviewed.ResultsFive children had CDG Ia, three children CDG Ib, and nine children CDG Ic. Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 months to 15 years. Failure to thrive was present in 80% of patients with CDG Ia, in 66% of those with CDG Ib, and in 11% of those with CDG Ic. Five children had protein-losing enteropathy (two CDG Ia, two CDG Ib, and one CDG Ic). Hepatomegaly was present in 40% of patients with CDG Ia, in 66% of those with CDG Ib, and in 11% of those with CDG Ic. In CDG Ic, hepatomegaly was transient. In CDG Ia, histologic analysis of the liver showed swollen hepatocytes, steatosis, and fibrosis. In CDG Ib, hamartomatous collections of bile ducts were seen. In one patient with CDG Ib, the clinical picture was restricted to congenital hepatic fibrosis for more than a decade.ConclusionsThe study confirms the heterogeneity of the clinical picture in children with CDG type Ia, Ib, and Ic. Children with protein-losing enteropathy should be tested for CDG. Protein-losing enteropathy can be caused, not only by CDG Ia and Ib, but also by type Ic. Children with congenital hepatic fibrosis should be tested for CDG, even in the absence of other symptoms. In CDG Ib, histologic analysis of the liver showed hamartomatous collections of bile ducts (Meyenburg complex).

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