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There is a great deal to be learned about how factors within the context of primary care influence the provision of comprehensive preventive services. This study assessed the prevalence of cancer screening among a primary care population of men and women and examined the association of characteristics of the patient-physician relationship, the healthcare facility, and type of health insurance. Findings suggest that prevalence of comprehensive cancer screening is low, particularly among men. Characteristics of the patient-physician relationship are an important predictor of screening among women but not men. Among men, however, greater contact with the medical care system is important.