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Mediastinal masses in children are a heterogeneous group of asymptomatic to potentially life-threatening congenital, infectious, or neoplastic lesions that can present complex diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. This article presents the imaging features of the common mediastinal masses seen in the pediatric population. Classification of the masses is performed according to the traditional mediastinal compartment model, consisting of the anterior, middle, and posterior mediastinum. This scheme facilitates differentiation of the variety of disorders.