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Overview: Postpartum depression is a crippling mood disorder, historically neglected in health care, leaving mothers to suffer in fear, confusion, and silence. Undiagnosed it can adversely affect the mother–infant relationship and lead to long-term emotional problems for the child. This article differentiates postpartum depression from other postpartum mood and anxiety disorders and addresses these aspects of postpartum depression: symptoms, prevalence, risk factors, interventions, and the effects on relationships and child development. Instruments available to screen for postpartum depression are also reviewed.