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Investigations and technical advances have enhanced our understanding and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recognition of the prevalence and importance of patients with endoscopy-negative reflux disease as well as those refractory to proton pump inhibitor therapy have led to an increasing need for objective tests of esophageal reflux. Guidelines for esophageal reflux testing are developed under the auspices of the American College of Gastroenterology and its Practice Parameters Committee and approved by the Board of Trustees. Issues regarding the utilization of conventional, catheter-based pH monitoring are discussed. Improvements in the interpretation of esophageal pH recordings through the use of symptom-reflux association analyses as well as limitations gleaned from recent studies are reviewed. The clinical utility of pH recordings in the proximal esophagus and stomach is examined. Newly introduced techniques of duodenogastroesophageal reflux, wireless pH capsule monitoring and esophageal impedance testing are assessed and put into the context of traditional methodology. Finally, recommendations on the clinical applications of esophageal reflux testing are presented.