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Several studies have implicated vitamin A-related compounds in the pathogenesis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). The goal of this study was to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum concentrations of retinol and retinol-binding protein (RBP) in subjects with and without IIH.CSF and serum samples were collected from 87 subjects. The study population was composed of subjects with IIH (IIH group, n = 28), subjects with non-IIH neurologic conditions (neurology controls, n = 42), and subjects undergoing preoperative lumbar puncture but with no known neurologic conditions (anesthesia controls, n = 17). RBP levels (nM) were determined using radial immunodiffusion, and retinol levels (nM) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography.The retinol/RBP ratio was greater in CSF than in serum, especially in subjects with IIH.The finding of increased levels of unbound retinol in the CSF of subjects with IIH provides further evidence that vitamin A may be involved in the pathogenesis of IIH. Comparative statistical analyses revealed multivariate relationships that demonstrate the need to further investigate correlations between vitamin A and RBP levels in CSF and serum.