|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
To describe the ophthalmic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and to review recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of this condition.Significant vision loss and associated ocular morbidity are possible in systemic lupus erythematosus, particularly in cases of retinal or central nervous system involvement. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms of disease. Approaches to treatment include the use of systemic immunosuppressive medications. Biologic agents are being developed to target specific aspects of the immune response.Ocular involvement is not uncommon in systemic lupus erythematosus. Aggressive systemic therapy is often needed to control the disease. Several new immunomodulatory treatment strategies are being developed which may show great promise in the future.