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To determine the effectiveness of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in children with Helicobacter pylori infection undergoing eradication therapy.We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial comparing a 7-day, triple eradication regimen consisting of 2 antibiotics (amoxicillin tablets, 25 mg/kg twice per day, and clarithromycin tablets, 10 mg/kg twice per day) plus a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole capsules, 0.5 mg/kg twice per day) supplemented with LGG (109 colony-forming units) or placebo in 83 children with H pylori infection confirmed by 2 of 3 tests (13C-urea breath test, histopathology, rapid urease test). The primary outcome measure was the H pylori eradication rate. The secondary outcome measure was the proportion of patients who experienced therapy-related adverse effects during anti–H pylori treatment.The groups did not differ with respect to H pylori eradication rates. Of the 34 children in the LGG group, 23 (69%) experienced eradication, compared with 22 of 32 children (68%) in the placebo group (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.7–1.4). The groups did not differ with respect to adverse effects.In children with H pylori infection, supplementation of standard triple therapy with LGG did not significantly alter the eradication rate or side effects.