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Genes that regulate the serotonin signalling system are potential targets for research in the aetiology of mood disorders and also in the treatment response of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated the association of seven serotonin signal transduction-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms [HTR1A (rs6295), HTR2A (rs6313, rs6311 and rs7997012), HTR6 (rs1805054), TPH1 (rs1800532) and TPH2 (rs1386494)] with major depressive disorder and/or treatment outcome with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder were treated for 6 weeks with fluoxetine, paroxetine or citalopram. The treatment response was evaluated with the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and according to predefined response criteria, the patients were divided into responders, nonresponders, remitters and nonremitters. Altogether, 86 patients completed the entire study according to the study protocol. We had also a control population (N = 395) of healthy blood donors. None of the seven single nucleotide polymorphisms was associated with major depressive disorder or with treatment response in our study population of Finnish individuals.