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To assess whether the presence and severity of intensive care unit-acquired paresis are associated with intensive care unit and in-hospital mortality.Prospective, observational study.Two medical, one surgical, and one medico-surgical intensive care units in two university hospitals and one university-affiliated hospital.A total of 115 consecutive patients were enrolled after > 7 days of mechanical ventilation.None.The Medical Research Council score (from 0–60) was used to evaluate upper and lower limb strength at time of awakening, identified as the ability to follow five commands. Intensive care unit-acquired paresis was defined as a Medical Research Council score <48. Patients were followed-up until hospital discharge. The primary end point was hospital mortality. At awakening, median Medical Research Council score was 41 (interquartile range, 21–52), and 75 (65%) patients had intensive care unit-acquired paresis. Hospital non-survivors had a significantly lower Medical Research Council score at awakening (21 [11–43]) vs. 41 [28–53]; p = .008) and a significantly higher rate of intensive care unit-acquired paresis (85.1% vs. 58.4%; p = .02) compared to survivors. After multivariate risk adjustment, intensive care unit-acquired paresis was independently associated with higher hospital and intensive care unit mortality (odds ratio for hospital mortality, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–8.03; p = .048). Each Medical Research Council point decrease was associated with a significantly higher hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.05; p = .033).Both the presence and severity of intensive care unit-acquired paresis at the time of awakening are associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital mortality; the mechanisms underlying this association need further study.