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Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetically inherited syndrome characterized by cilia immotility or dysmotility. Deficiency in mucociliary clearance produces chronic respiratory infections since birth, male sterility by spermatozoid immotility and situs inversus in 40-50% of patients (Kartagener's syndrome). Diagnosis is made by analyzing cilia motility with high-speed digital video and ciliar ultrastructure. The wide distribution and functions of the cilia in the body mean that this dysfunction can generate other ciliopathies apart from primary ciliary dyskinesia.