Linezolid versus vancomycin or teicoplanin for nosocomial pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis*


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Abstract

Introduction:Compared with glycopeptides, linezolid achieves higher lung epithelial lining fluid concentrations, which may correlate with improved efficacy in the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. However, clinical superiority has not been demonstrated.Objective:To test the hypothesis that linezolid may be superior to glycopeptides.Methods:Prospective randomized trials that tested linezolid vs. vancomycin or teicoplanin for treatment of nosocomial pneumonia were included. Heterogeneity was analyzed by I2 and Q statistics. Meta-analysis relative risks were based on fixed and random-effects models. Outcomes evaluated consisted of clinical cure, microbiological eradication, and side effects.Results:Nine linezolid trials (vancomycin [7]; teicoplanin [2]) were included (n = 2329). The linezolid vs. glycopeptide analysis shows clinical cure relative risk of 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.93-1.10; p = .83; I2 = 0%) and microbiological eradication relative risk of 1.10 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 -1.22; p = .10; I2 = 0%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus subgroup analysis yielded a microbiological eradication relative risk of 1.10 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.38; p = .44; I2 = 16%). If linezolid is compared with vancomycin only, then clinical cure relative risk is 1.00 (95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.12), microbiological eradication and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus relative risks are 1.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.26; p = .45) and 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.33; p = .71). The risks of thrombocytopenia (relative risk, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-2.87; p = .001) and gastrointestinal events (relative risk, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.70; p = .02) are higher with linezolid, but no differences are seen for renal dysfunction (relative risk, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-1.43; p = .64) or all-cause mortality (relative risk, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.18; p = .63).Conclusions:Our study does not demonstrate clinical superiority of linezolid vs. glycopeptides for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia despite a statistical power of 95%. Linezolid shows a significant two-fold increase in the risk of thrombocytopenia and gastrointestinal events. Vancomycin and teicoplanin are not associated with more renal dysfunction than linezolid.

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