HIV protease inhibitors alter innate immune response signaling to double-stranded RNA in oral epithelial cells: implications for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

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In this investigation, several HIV protease inhibitors altered the virally associated, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-stimulated, innate immune response. Lopinavir, the most potent inducer of interleukin (IL)-8 expression, also inhibited dsRNA-induced monocyte chemotactic protein 1 expression. Further analyses demonstrated that nuclear factor-κB is required for lopinavir's induction of IL-8. These findings demonstrate that protease inhibitors, such as lopinavir, differentially dysregulate innate immune signaling in a manner that could affect immune (reconstitution) inflammatory responses in oral epithelium.

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