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Buprenorphine/naloxone allows the integration of opioid dependence and HIV treatment.We conducted a prospective study in HIV-infected opioid-dependent patients to investigate the impact of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment on drug use. Self-report and chart review assessments were conducted every 3 months (quarters 1-4) for 1 year. Outcomes were buprenorphine/naloxone treatment retention, drug use, and addiction treatment processes.Among 303 patients enrolled between July 2005 and December 2007, retention in buprenorphine/naloxone treatment was 74%, 67%, 59%, and 49% during Quarters 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Past 30-day illicit opioid use decreased from 84% of patients at baseline to 42% in retained patients over the year. Patients were 52% less likely to use illicit opioids for each quarter in treatment (Odds ratio = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.72). Buprenorphine/naloxone doses and office visits approximated guidelines published by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Urine toxicology monitoring was less frequent than recommended.Buprenorphine/naloxone provided in HIV treatment settings can decrease opioid use. Strategies are needed to improve retention and address ongoing drug use in this treatment population.