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Cocaine use is common in opioid-dependent HIV-infected patients, but its impact on treatment outcomes in these patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone is not known.We conducted a prospective study in 299 patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone who provided baseline cocaine data and a subset of 266 patients who remained in treatment for greater than or equal to one quarter. Assessments were conducted at baseline and quarterly for 1 year. We evaluated the association between baseline and in-treatment cocaine use on buprenorphine/naloxone retention, illicit opioid use, antiretroviral adherence, CD4 counts, HIV RNA, and risk behaviors.Sixty-six percent (197 of 299) of patients reported baseline cocaine use and 65% (173 of 266) of patients with follow-up data reported in-treatment cocaine use. Baseline and in-treatment cocaine use did not impact buprenorphine/naloxone retention, antiretroviral adherence, CD4 lymphocytes, or HIV risk behaviors. However, baseline cocaine use was associated with a 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.0-24.2) times greater likelihood of subsequent cocaine use (95% CI, 9.0-24.2), a 1.4 (95% CI, 1.02-2.00) times greater likelihood of subsequent opioid use, and higher log10 HIV RNA (P < 0.016) over time. In-treatment cocaine use was associated with a 1.4 (95% CI, 1.01-2.00) times greater likelihood of concurrent opioid use.Given cocaine use negatively impacts opioid and HIV treatment outcomes, interventions to address cocaine use in HIV-infected patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone treatment are warranted.