Suppression of Cautery-Induced Electromagnetic Interference of Cardiac Implantable Electrical Devices by Closely Spaced Bipolar Sensing

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BACKGROUND:Electromagnetic interference (EMI) induced by electrocautery during surgery in patients with cardiac pacemakers or implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) may inhibit pacing and cause inappropriate tachyarrhythmia oversensing. In particular, susceptibility to EMI may be enhanced in ICDs by frequently used wide interelectrode sensing (i.e., integrated bipolar sensing). Consequently, ICD function is usually disabled preoperatively and restored later by noninvasive programming. Because sensing by closely spaced electrodes (i.e., true bipolar) may be less susceptible to EMI, preoperative programming to a true bipolar mode may minimize the need for perioperative programming while preserving device function.METHODS:Our study population consisted of 23 consecutive patients either receiving a new ICD or undergoing ICD pulse generator change. In each patient, electrocautery-induced EMI was initiated with the ICD in the closely spaced sensing configuration and again during widely spaced sensing.RESULTS:In comparing the 2 sensing modes, right ventricular electrogram amplitude was significantly greater and EMI noise amplitude tended to be greater with widely spaced bipolar sensing. Furthermore, widely spaced bipolar sensing was associated with ICD pacing inhibition in 22 of 23 patients and incorrect “ventricular fibrillation” detection in 17 of 23 patients. Conversely, closely spaced bipolar sensing was not accompanied by either pacing inhibition or incorrect ventricular fibrillation sensing.CONCLUSION:Closely spaced bipolar sensing (i.e., true bipolar) appropriately rejects electrocautery-induced EMI. Programming implanted devices to closely spaced bipolar sensing may minimize the need for perioperative reprogramming while preserving intraoperative device operation.

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