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This retrospective observational study of 140 HIV-infected children with uncomplicated malnutrition in urban Malawi tested the hypothesis that initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 21 days of outpatient therapeutic feeding (prompt ART) improved clinical outcomes. Children receiving prompt ART were more likely to recover nutritionally (86% vs. 60%, P < 0.01) and had higher rates of weight gain (3.6 vs. 1.6 g/k/day; P = 0.02). Logistic regression modeling found prompt ART was associated with increased likelihood of nutritional recovery (odds ratio: 5.4, 95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 14.5). This suggests that prompt ART is associated with improved outcomes in HIV-infected Malawian children with uncomplicated malnutrition.