A comparison of the natriuretic and kaliuretic effects of cicletanine and hydrochlorothiazide in prehypertensive and hypertensive humans

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Objectives:The aim of this study was to compare the single-dose effects of thiazide-type diuretics cicletanine and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), on natriuresis and kaliuresis in prehypertensive and treatment-naïve, stage 1 hypertensive patients and to explore the impact of GRK4 gene polymorphisms on thiazide-induced urinary electrolyte excretion.Methods:The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-period, four-treatment, balanced incomplete block, cross-over study in male patients assigned to treatment sequences consisting of placebo, cicletanine 50 mg, cicletanine 150 mg, and HCTZ 25 mg, doses used to treat hypertension. Cumulative urine samples were collected predosing and over 24 h after dosing in each period to compare urine electrolyte excretion profiles of potassium (UKV), sodium (UNaV), magnesium, calcium, phosphate, chloride, and pH among groups. Each treatment was administered to 18 different patients in each period, and an equal number of patients had less than and at least three GRK4 allele variants.Results:Compared with placebo, mean UKV was significantly increased with HCTZ 25 mg (12.7 mmol/day; P ≤ 0.001), cicletanine 50 mg (4.6 mmol/day; P = 0.026), and cicletanine 150 mg (5.5 mmol/day; P = 0.011), and mean UNaV was significantly increased with HCTZ 25 mg (102.2 mmol/day; P ≤ 0.001), cicletanine 50 mg (21.7 mmol/day; P = 0.005), and cicletanine 150 mg (57.9 mmol/day; P ≤ 0.001).Conclusion:All treatments had more natriuresis, diuresis, and kaliuresis than placebo, and both doses of cicletanine had less kaliuresis than HCTZ. These findings suggest that cicletanine is a favorable and well tolerated option for the treatment of hypertension with an improved safety profile compared with HCTZ.

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