Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed by a nonenzymatic reaction of sugar moieties (eg, glucose, fructose, glycolytic adducts) with the free amino groups on amino acid residues of proteins. A growing body of data demonstrate that AGEs are intimately involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease by stimulating inflammation, contributing to atheroma formation, and modulating vascular stiffness. The role of AGEs as potential biomarkers for disease presence and prognosis in patients with diabetes mellitus remains an active area of study. Epidemiologic and angiographic studies suggest that AGE levels may be related to the presence and extent of atherosclerosis, and may predict future outcomes in select populations. The present review summarizes the relevant evidence supporting the role of advanced glycation in promoting atherosclerosis and the epidemiologic studies demonstrating an association between AGEs and diabetic cardiovascular disease.