Medial Orbital Wall Fractures and the Transcaruncular Approach

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We review the literature on medial orbital wall fractures and perform a meta-analysis on outcomes with the transcaruncular approach. The reported incidence for this injury ranges widely, although diagnosis can be made effectively with clinical examination and computed tomography. Clinical sequelae can include rectus entrapment or herniation, enophthalmos, and diplopia. Local injuries occurring in high concordance include concomitant fractures of the orbital floor and nasal fractures, although anterior cranial fossa extension, ocular trauma, other craniofacial injuries, and polytrauma must be ruled out. Indications for operative intervention include large defects, early or persistent enophthalmos particularly if causing diplopia, and rectus muscle entrapment.Various surgical approaches to the medial orbit have been described; however, the transcaruncular approach offers direct, reliable access without creating a cutaneous scar on the central face. A meta-analysis was performed on all studies reporting outcomes of the transcaruncular approach. A total of 228 cases were pooled, finding a favorable overall complication rate of 2.6%. Half of these complications required surgical correction and half resolved nonoperatively.Medial orbital wall fractures are an increasingly appreciated injury requiring clinical and radiologic assessments. When indicated, reconstruction of the medial orbital wall can be safely and effectively performed with the transcaruncular approach. Additional prospective outcomes studies are required to elucidate (1) the incidence of medial orbital wall fractures, (2) indications for operative versus nonoperative management, and (3) outcomes analysis of the transcaruncular approach compared with other approaches.

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