Cestode infestations: hydatid disease and cysticercosis.

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Although humans can be definitive hosts for cestodes (tapeworms), major pathologic conditions occur during cestode larval stages when humans serve as the intermediate host for these parasites. The most relevant forms of human disease caused by cestode larvae are echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus (cystic echinococcosis) and Echinococcus multilocularis (alveolar echinococcosis), and cysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium. These infections occur worldwide, but their relevance is particularly high in developing countries, where poor hygiene conditions facilitate the transmission of the parasites. The therapeutic approach is often complex, requiring surgery and/or chemotherapy or, in the case of cystic echinococcosis, percutaneous treatments.

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