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The rate of infections associated with short peripheral intravenous catheters is thought to be very low, even rare. Approximately 330 million peripheral catheters are sold annually in the United States. Although the rate may be low, the actual number of infections could be relatively high, with most going undetected because of short dwell times and early patient discharges. A recent estimate reported as many as 10000 Staphylococcus aureus bacteremias from peripheral catheters annually in the United States. This integrative literature review identified soft tissue, bone, and bloodstream infections. Analysis of 45 studies revealed significant knowledge gaps and inadequate clinical practices associated with one of the most common devices used in all health care settings.