Extended Composite Temporoparietal Fascial Flap: Clinical Implications for Tissue Engineering in Mandibular Reconstruction

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The authors have expanded upon a well-described and widely used flap in the head and neck region. The purpose of the cadaver study was to determine the feasibility, angiosome, and the potential application of this pedicled flap in bone tissue engineering of the mandible.


A total of 6 fresh human cadaver heads were dissected for a total of 12 flaps. The extended composite temporoparietal fascial flap, based on the superficial temporal artery (STA) and including cranial periosteum, was dissected and the dimensions were measured. Through a combined submandibular and preauricular incision, the mandible was exposed and the dimensions were measured from the sigmoid notch to the gonion angle and from the gonion angle to the symphysis. CT angiography and silicone injections were performed to identify the vascular anatomy of the flap.


The combined distance from the sigmoid notch to the gonion and the gonion to the symphysis, plotted versus the cranial apex to tragus length, demonstrated adequate flap dimensions in all specimens for hemi-mandibular reconstruction. The average flap length was 16.5 ± 1.40 cm and the average flap width was 11.4 ± 0.98 cm, resulting in an average flap surface area of 94.5 ± 13.08 cm2. Radiographic images and silicone injections confirmed STA perfusion of the cranial periosteum.


The extended composite temporoparietal fascial flap with periosteum can be a viable option for providing vascularized periosteum in tissue-engineered craniofacial reconstruction.

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