Using Growth Mixture Modeling to Identify Classes of Sodium Adherence in Adults With Heart Failure


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Abstract

Background:The prevention of fluid retention is important to reduce hospitalizations in patients with heart failure (HF). Following a low-sodium diet helps to reduce fluid retention.Objective:The primary objective of this study was to use growth mixture modeling to identify distinct classes of sodium adherence—characterized by shared growth trajectories of objectively measured dietary sodium. The secondary objective was to identify patient-level determinants of the nonadherent trajectory.Methods:This was a secondary analysis of data collected from a prospective longitudinal study of 279 community-dwelling adults with previously or currently symptomatic HF. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories of change in 24-hour urinary sodium excretion measured at 3 time points over 6 months. Logistic modeling was used to predict membership in observed trajectories.Results:The sample was predominantly male (64%), had a mean age of 62 years, was functionally compromised (59% New York Heart Association class III), and had nonischemic HF etiology. Two distinct trajectories of sodium intake were identified and labeled adherent (66%) and nonadherent (34%) to low-sodium diet recommendations. Three predictors of the nonadherent trajectory were identified, confirming our previous mixed-effect analysis. Compared with being normal weight (body mass index <25 kg/m2), being overweight and obese was associated with a 4-fold incremental increase in the likelihood of being in the nonadherent trajectory (odds ratio [OR], 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66–12.91; P < .002). Being younger than 65 years (OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.04–20.81; P = .044) or having diabetes (OR, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.29–13.40; P = .016) were both associated with more than 4 times the odds of being in the nonadherent urine sodium trajectory compared with being older than 65 years or not having diabetes, respectively.Conclusions:Two distinct trajectories of sodium intake were identified in patients with HF. The nonadherent trajectory was characterized by an elevated pattern of dietary sodium intake shown by others to be associated with adverse outcomes in HF. Predictors of the nonadherent trajectory included higher body mass index, younger age, and diabetes.

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